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Re: [sauropod@berkeley.edu: Re: [mhabib5@jhmi.edu: Re: sauropod lung collapse]]

I believe diving birds exhale as much as they can before they go down. I
think they probably have to, otherwise they wouldn't _go_ down...

Actually, penguins dive upon inspiration, so they're going down with a full tank (despite having to fight buoyancy). See: Sato et al. 2002. The Journal of Experimental Biology 205, 1189–1197 (2002)

I cannot speak for loons, grebes, alcids, etc. but I suspect that they all go down with significant air storage (if not full tanks). Diving ducks, for example, spend most of their energy (at least early in the dive sequence) to fighting Buoyancy (Vogel, 2003).

Ironically, penguins (which probably have the lowest buoyancy among diving birds) also have the most efficient propulsion. The high buoyant divers are largely drag-based paddlers, so they're working very hard indeed.


--Mike Habib