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RE: Sheesh

> >Hesperornithids, penguins, plotopterids, and
> >mancalline auks, Pinguinus and Chendytes as
> borderline
> >cases. Did I forget any?
> Apparently by "marine" you mean "flightless" (in
> which case the flightless 
> cormorant and steamer ducks might classify as
> borderline cases).

Flightlessness is the one final shackle, so to speak.
I found it awkward enough when writing it. I mean
"marine" in the most basis sense: having the ocean
waters as main habitat and utilizing dry land only to
breed, out of necessity, and even then only the very
shoreline (except some modern penguins).

> >So what one can say with certainty is that there
> were
> >no truly carnivorous lineages of truly marine birds
> >(as opposed to flying seabirds) around when and
> where
> >there was a large diversity of marine mammals.
> Do you consider penguins not truly marine or
> herbivorous?

Borderline as per coexistence with marine mammals,
especially the large species (smaller species are
meso-/microcarnivores - as was Chendytes). More
widespread equatorwards and commonly much larger until
the Pliocene. Modern pylogenies suggest that Antarcica
proper was resettled post-Pliocene.



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