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RE: Sauropod Self Defense



The appropriate titanosaur for an encounter with Tyrannosaurus is 
Alamosaurus. 

Except for the short necked dicraeosaurs and maybe short necked Nigersaurus, 
all known sauroopods could elevate the head well above shoulder level. Most 
sauropods could easily lift the necks to vertical, or beyond in many longer 
necked forms, by dorso-flexing each neck vertebrae by only 10 degrees or so, 
the 
amount preserved in the fused pair of Camarsaurus cervo-dorsals. In any case 
neutral neck posture in long necked animals living or extinct is largely 
useless 
in that it is basically impossible to reliably determine unless the 
intervertebral cartilage is present, because it says nothing about the maximum 
range on 
vertical motion, and because animals often feed with the neck well out of its 
neutral posture. 

Attempts to refute the ability of the tail heavy sauropods to rear up are 
rather silly in that any analysis would show that front heavy, tailless 
elephants 
lack any adaptations for rearing. Yet they do so in the wild to feed. 

As for the business about using inner ear orientation to determine head 
posture don't get me started, at least yet,

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