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CT scans reveal that dinosaurs were airheads

Skull cavities helped creatures breathe, communicate and move
ATHENS, Ohio (Dec. 8, 2008) - Paleontologists have long known that dinosaurs 
had tiny brains, but they had no idea the beasts were such airheads. 
A new study by Ohio University researchers Lawrence Witmer and Ryan Ridgely 
found that dinosaurs had more air cavities in their heads than expected. By 
using CT scans, the scientists were able to develop 3-D images of the dinosaur 
skulls that show a clearer picture of the physiology of the airways. 
"I've been looking at sinuses for a long time, and indeed people would kid me 
about studying nothing-looking at the empty spaces in the skull. But what's 
emerged is that these air spaces have certain properties and functions," said 
Witmer, Chang Professor of Paleontology in Ohio University's College of 
Osteopathic Medicine. 
Witmer and Ridgely examined skulls from two predators, Tyrannosaurus rex and 
Majungasaurus, and two ankylosaurian dinosaurs, Panoplosaurus and 
Euoplocephalus, both plant eaters with armored bodies and short snouts. For 
comparison, the scientists also studied scans of crocodiles and ostriches, 
which are modern day relatives of dinosaurs, as well as humans. 
The analysis of the predatory dinosaurs revealed large olfactory areas, an 
arching airway that went from the nostrils to the throat, and many sinuses-the 
same cavities that give us sinus headaches. Overall, the amount of air space 
was much greater than the brain cavity. 
The CT scans also allowed Witmer and Ridgely to calculate the volume of the 
bone, air space, muscle and other soft tissues to make an accurate estimate of 
how much these heads weighed when the animals were alive. A fully fleshed-out 
T. rex head, for example, weighed more than 1,100 pounds.
"That's more than the combined weight of the whole starting lineup of the 
Cleveland Cavaliers," Witmer said.
Witmer suggests that the air spaces helped lighten the load of the head, making 
it about 18 percent lighter than it would have been without all the air. That 
savings in weight could have allowed the predators to put on more bone-crushing 
muscle or even to take larger prey. 
These sinus cavities also may have played a biomechanical role by making the 
bones hollow, similar to the hollow beams used in construction - both are 
incredibly strong but don't weigh as much their solid counterparts. A light but 
strong skull enabled these predators to move their heads more quickly and 
helped them hold their large heads up on cantilevered necks, explained Witmer, 
who published the findings in a recent issue of The Anatomical Record.
Though most researchers have assumed that the nasal passages in armored 
dinosaurs would mimic the simple airways of the predators, Witmer and Ridgely 
found that these spaces actually were convoluted and complex. The passages were 
twisted and corkscrewed in the beasts' snouts and didn't funnel directly to the 
lungs or air pockets. 
"Not only do these guys have nasal cavities like crazy straws, they also have 
highly vascular snouts. The nasal passages run right next to large blood 
vessels, and so there's the potential for heat transfer. As the animal breathes 
in, the air passed over the moist surfaces and cooled the blood, and the blood 
simultaneously warmed the inspired air," said Witmer, whose research is funded 
by the National Science Foundation. "These are the same kinds of physiological 
mechanisms we find all the time in warm-blooded animals today."
These twisty nasal passages also acted as resonating chambers that affected how 
the ankylosaurs vocalized. The complex airways would have been somewhat 
different in each animal and might have given the dinosaurs subtle differences 
in their voices. 
"It's possible that these armored dinosaurs could recognize individuals based 
on the voice," said Witmer, who noted that his research team's studies of the 
inner ear revealed a hearing organ that probably had the capability to 
discriminate these subtle vocal nuances.
Though Witmer found few similarities between the dinosaur and human sinuses-our 
brain cavities take up much more space relative to our sinuses- the scientist 
did find a resemblance between the air spaces of the crocodiles and ostriches 
and the ancient beasts under study.
"Extra air space turns out to be a family characteristic," he said, "but the 
sinuses may be performing different roles in different species. Scientists have 
tended to focus on things such as bones and muscle, and ignored these air 
spaces. If we're going to decipher the mysteries of these extinct animals, 
maybe we need to figure out just why it is that these guys were such airheads."