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Re: Ceratosaurus, venom or no?
Hmmm... true, there is evidence the tail hitting is fast (at least on
diplodocids), and I do not know of any study suggesting such a fast
movement for the sauropod neck (I have seen a hen avoiding the
pawswipe of a cat, or fast-moving necks of herons, but of course there
are many differences in vertebral shape).
But, it seems that the kiddingly supposed inoculating system is in the
head, and there is no evidence of one at the tip of the tail, so...
should have the sauropod first to hit some sensitive zone in the
theropod with the tail and then, with the prey item stunned, attempt a
bite? I do not think a sauropod the same size of a theropod can stun
its antagonist with its whip-like tail, anyway...
By the way, we have Silesaurus in the "pseudo-venomous club". It is
fullfilled of longitudinal sulci on its teeth, in the crown. Its teeth
are too blunt as to reflect some hypodermic needle. Thus, it may more
likely reflect some other taxon without venom and with sulci. It may
help the case of the lack of correlation between sulci and venom