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My Sister's New Papers

Apologies again if any of these are duplicates, but I don't think any of these 
have been specifically mentioned on the list yet...

Renesto, S., Spielmann, J.A., and Lucas, S.G. 2009. The oldest record of 
drepanosaurids (Reptilia, Diapsida) from the Late Triassic (Adamanian Placerias 
Quarry, Arizona, USA) and the stratigraphic range of the Drepanosauridae. Neues 
Jahrbuch fÃr Geologie und PalÃontologie Abhandlungen 252(3):315-325. doi: 

ABSTRACT: Previous detailed descriptions of relatively complete drepanosaurid 
material make it possible to recognize isolated drepanosaurid elements from 
other localities. The identification of isolated elements from the USA and 
Great Britain extended the geographical distribution of the group and 
encouraged a review of Triassic collections for characteristic elements of this 
family. In this paper, isolated vertebrae previously described as problematic 
reptiles from the famous Placerias Quarry, near St. Johns, Arizona, USA are 
re-identified as drepanosaurids. These specimens represent the oldest 
occurrence of this family, which is earliest Adamanian.

Prieto-MÃrquez, A., and Wagner, J.R. 2009. Pararhabdodon isonensis and 
Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus: a new clade of lambeosaurine hadrosaurids from 
Eurasia. Cretaceous Research. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2009.06.005.

ABSTRACT: We present new anatomical information showing that Koutalisaurus 
kohlerorum, from the Maastrichtian of Lleida Province, northeastern Spain, is 
most probably the junior synonym of Pararhabdodon isonensis from the same 
region. Dentary and maxillary characters previously considered as 
autapomorphies of K. kohlerorum and P. isonensis, respectively, are shown to be 
synapomorphies uniting the latter with Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus from the 
Campanian of the Wangshi Group, Shandong Province, China. This study provided 
conclusive evidence of the presence of the Lambeosaurinae in Europe. 
Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus and Pararhabdodon isonensis were inferred to form a 
clade of basal lambeosaurines characterized by a maxilla with an elevated 
articular facet for the jugal (continuous with the ectopterygoid ridge) and an 
extremely medially projected symphyseal region of the dentary. This clade 
originated in Asia during the middle or late Campanian. Pararhabdodon isonensis 
or its ancestors migrated from Asia to the Iberian island of the European 
archipelago. Reconstruction of ancestral areas by Fitch parsimony attributes 
the European occurrence of P. isonensis to a single dispersal event from Asia 
no later than middle to late Campanian.

Buffetaut, E., and Morel, N. 2009. A stegosaur vertebra (Dinosauria: 
Ornithischia) from the Callovian (Middle Jurassic) of Sarthe, western France. 
Comptes Rendus Palevol. doi: 10.1016/j.crpv.2009.05.001.

ABSTRACT: A dinosaur vertebra found in the course of road works in the âChevain 
Marlsâ (marine Callovian) of the Vermont outlier, near the village of BÃthon 
(Sarthe, Pays-de-la-Loire, western France) is described and referred to a 
stegosaur (cf. Lexovisaurus). It is the first record of a dinosaur in the 
Middle Jurassic of that area. The specimen was probably derived from the 
floating carcass of an animal that had lived on the emerged areas of the 
Armorican Massif, near which the Chevain Marls were deposited. This fossil is 
an addition to the short list of stegosaur remains reported from France.

Klembara, J., and Welman, J. 2009. The anatomy of the palatoquadrate in the 
Lower Triassic Proterosuchus fergusi (Reptilia, Archosauromorpha) and its 
morphological transformation within the archosauriform clade. Acta Zoologica 
90(3):275-284. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00358.x.

ABSTRACT: The anatomy of the palatoquadrate ossifications of the Lower Triassic 
archosauromorph Proterosuchus fergusi from South Africa is described. It 
consists of two ossifications, the epipterygoid and the quadrate, which were 
joined by cartilage in life. The margins of the cartilage are clearly indicated 
by ridges and grooves on the dorsal surface of the pterygoid. The epipterygoid 
ossification consists of two structures: the anteroposteriorly expanded basal 
portion and, dorsally from it, an extending, slender, ascending process. From 
the anterior margin of the basal portion of the epipterygoid, a plate-like 
structure, herein called the lamina epipterygoidea anteromedialis, extends 
anteromedially to form the anterolateral wall of the cavum epiptericum. 
Comparisons with the similarly constructed embryonal and adult epipterygoid 
components of Sphenodon punctatus show that the anteromedial lamina of the 
epipterygoid of P. fergusi is an additional component of the epipterygoid of 
this species and that this lamina is absent in the former species. However, a 
structure in a topologically similar position to the anteromedial lamina of the 
epipterygoid of P. fergusi is present in the palatoquadrate of Alligator 
mississippiensis. In the latter species, the structure is called the lamina 
palatoquadrati anterior; it ossifies in membrane and forms the dorsolateral 
cover of the huge trigeminal ganglion. It is hypothesized here that the 
anteromedial lamina of the epipterygoid of P. fergusi and the anterior lamina 
of the palatoquadrate of A. mississippiensis are most probably homologous 
structures and are present in both the basal and one of the crown taxa of the 
archosauromorph clade, respectively.

Martin, A.J. 2009. Dinosaur burrows in the Otway Group (Albian) of Victoria, 
Australia, and their relation to Cretaceous polar environments. Cretaceous 
Research. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2009.06.003.

ABSTRACT: Three enigmatic structures in an outcrop of the Otway Group (Albian) 
of Victoria, Australia, compose the first known evidence suggestive of dinosaur 
burrows outside of North America and the oldest from the fossil record. The 
most complete of the Otway structures nearly matches the size and morphology of 
a burrow attributed to the only known burrowing dinosaur, Oryctodromeus 
cubicularis from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Montana (USA). The 
suspected burrows cross-cut alluvial facies and overlie nearby strata 
containing dinosaur tracks. The structures contain identical sand fills in 
their upper portions, implying a near-synchronous origin and filling; graded 
bedding in the most complete structure also indicates passive filling of an 
originally open structure. This probable burrow is a 2.1 m long, gently 
descending, semi-helical tunnel, with a near-constant diameter (about 30 cm) 
that connects with an enlarged terminal chamber. The structures are unlikely to 
have been caused by physical or chemical sedimentary processes, and hence are 
considered as biogenic structures; moreover, their size and morphology imply 
tetrapod tracemakers. Burrow allometry indicates tracemakers with a mass of 
10-20 kg, matching size estimates for small ornithopods from the Otway Group. 
Burrowing behavior in hypsilophodontid-grade dinosaurs, which compose most of 
the dinosaurian assemblage in the Lower Cretaceous of Victoria, was proposed 
previously as an adaptation for surviving formerly polar conditions in 
southeastern Australia. This paradigm is explored in detail, particularly 
through actualistic examples of tetrapod burrowing in cold climates. These 
structures may provide the first clues of ornithopod burrowing in these extreme 
environments, while also establishing search images for similar structures in 
other Lower Cretaceous outcrops in Victoria.

Pol, D., Turner, A.H., and Norell, M.A. 2009. Morphology of the Late Cretaceous 
crocodylomorph Shamosuchus djadochtaensis and a discussion of neosuchian 
phylogeny as related to the origin of Eusuchia. Bulletin of the American Museum 
of Natural History 324:1-103.

ABSTRACT: We describe a new specimen of the fossil crocodyliform taxon 
Shamosuchus djadochtaensis from the Late Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation. The 
new specimen consists of an almost complete skull found in association with 
postcranial material. Because it is considerably more complete than the 
holotype, the new specimen permits proper diagnosis of Shamosuchus 
djadochtaensis and offers new information for exploring its phylogenetic 

     The phylogenetic analysis conducted here improves taxon sampling of 
neosuchian crocodyliforms with respect to previous approaches to crocodyliform 
systematics and reveals that Shamosuchus djadochtaensis bears important 
information toward an understanding of the relationships of advanced 
neosuchians and the evolutionary origin of Eusuchia. Shamosuchus djadochtaensis 
is found to be the sister group of Rugosuchus nonganensis, comprising an Asian 
clade diagnosed by the presence of a sagittal ridge on the dorsal surface of 
the frontal, confluent openings for the exit of cranial nerves IXâXI, a 
posterior region of the palatine bar between suborbital fenestra that is flared 
posteriorly, and a longitudinal ridge on the lateral surface of the angular. 
This clade is inferred to be the sister group of Eusuchia, to the exclusion of 
Bernissartia fagesii and the Glen Rose form, based on the absence of an acute 
anterior tip of the frontal that wedges between the nasals, the presence of 
rodlike neural spines in the posterior cervical vertebrae, procoelous cervical 
vertebrae, and the presence of hypapophyses in the three anteriormost dorsal 
     Incorporating the new information into the phylogenetic analysis indicates 
the decoupled nature of the evolutionary history of procoely in different 
regions of the vertebral column and the eusuchian type of palate, both 
traditionally considered as diagnostic of Eusuchia. All these features have 
complex evolutionary histories with several cases of convergences and 
reversals. Finally, a review of all the available evidence on the diversity of 
advanced neosuchians suggests this group achieved a worldwide distribution and 
a remarkable morphological diversity, pushing their evolutionary origins back 
to the Jurassic.

Jablonski, D., and Finarelli, J.A. 2009. Congruence of morphologically-defined 
genera with molecular phylogenies. Proceedings of the National Academy of 
Sciences 106(20):8262-8266. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0902973106.

ABSTRACT: Morphologically-defined mammalian and molluscan genera (herein 
âmorphogeneraâ) are significantly more likely to be monophyletic relative to 
molecular phylogenies than random, under 3 different models of expected 
monophyly rates: â63% of 425 surveyed morphogenera are monophyletic and 19% are 
polyphyletic, although certain groups appear to be problematic (e.g., 
nonmarine, unionoid bivalves). Compiled nonmonophyly rates are probably extreme 
values, because molecular analyses have focused on âproblemâ taxa, and 
molecular topologies (treated herein as error-free) contain contradictory 
groupings across analyses for 10% of molluscan morphogenera and 37% of 
mammalian morphogenera. Both body size and geographic range, 2 key 
macroevolutionary and macroecological variables, show significant rank 
correlations between values for morphogenera and molecularly-defined clades, 
even when strictly monophyletic morphogenera are excluded from analyses. Thus, 
although morphogenera can be imperfect reflections of phylogeny, large-scale 
statistical treatments of diversity dynamics or macroevolutionary variables in 
time and space are unlikely to be misleading.

Mateus, O., Dyke, G.J., Motchurova-Dekova, N., Kamenov, G.D., and Ivanov, P. 
2009. The first record of a dinosaur from Bulgaria. Lethaia. doi: 

ABSTRACT: A portion of a left humerus from the Upper Maastrichtian of Vratsa 
district (NW Bulgaria) is shown to be from a non-avian theropod dinosaur: this 
is the first record of a dinosaur from Bulgaria. We describe this bone, suggest 
that it most likely pertains to an ornithomimosaur, and discuss the fossil 
record of other similar taxa of Late Cretaceous age that have been reported 
from Europe. To investigate the taphonomy of this fossil, rare earth element 
(REE) analysis is combined with strontium (Sr) isotope data to confirm that 
this Bulgarian dinosaur bone was initially fossilized in a terrestrial 
environment, then later re-worked into late Maastrichtian marine sediments.

Bleweiss, R. 2009. The tail end of hummingbird evolution: parallel flight 
system development in living and ancient birds. Biological Journal of the 
Linnean Society. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2009.01240.x.

ABSTRACT: Evolutionary innovations are central to debates about biological 
uniformitarianism because their very novelty implies a distinct evolutionary 
dynamic. Traditional scenarios for innovations in the development of avian 
powered flight exemplify the kinds of distinctions considered to occur at 
different times during the history of innovations. Thus, the progressive change 
of the wing stroke mechanism early in its evolution is considered to have 
imposed strong functional and historical constraints on tail shape diversity, 
whereas attainment of the modern flight stroke mechanism is considered to have 
liberated the tail to radiate into a wide variety of other functions and forms. 
Detailed analyses of living hummingbirds revealed that these highly aerial 
birds actually expressed many parallel functional constraints and historically 
progressive patterns observed earlier in avian history: (1) more basal lineages 
had relatively weak wing muscles (patagial muscles and tendons, TPB), convex to 
square tails, and more linear flight employed in nonterritorial foraging; (2) 
more derived lineages had a stronger TPB, forked tails, accentuated growth of 
tail fork, and more manoeuvrable and agile flight employed in territorial 
foraging; and (3) the most derived lineage had the strongest TPB, greatly 
reduced tails, and mainly bee-like flight. These associations make functional 
sense because convex tails increase stability and efficiency in linear flight, 
concave tails augment lift for turning flight in territorial defence, and tails 
become aerodynamically disadvantageous if the wings provide sufficient lift. 
Derived hummingbird lineages also demonstrated the same expansion of tail shape 
and taxonomic diversity associated with perfection of the modern wing stroke 
mechanism earlier in avian history. Thus, living hummingbirds are a microcosm 
of overall avian flight evolution. Other living avian ('aerial courser') and 
extinct reptilian (Pterosaur) clades with extraordinary flight abilities 
provide evidence for similar p!
followed by later radiation) at the limits of the flight performance envelope 
throughout vertebrate history. Correlated evolution of TPB and tail form 
suggests that natural selection on an integrated flight system was the 
principal mechanism fostering the avian patterns, although strengthening of 
wing muscles in derived lineages may have facilitated expansion of caudal 
morphological diversity through a balance between natural and sexual selection 
on males. These findings suggest that wing muscles, locomotor integration, and 
phylogenetic patterns are essential for understanding function and adaptation 
of tails in living as well as ancient birds.

Motani, R. 2009. The evolution of marine reptiles. Evolution: Education and 
Outreach 2(2):224-235. doi: 10.1007/s12052-009-0139-y.

ABSTRACT: Reptiles have repeatedly invaded marine environments despite their 
physiological constraints as air breathers. Marine reptiles were especially 
successful in the Mesozoic as major predators in the sea. There were more than 
a dozen groups of marine reptiles in the Mesozoic, of which four had more than 
30 genera, namely sauropterygians (including plesiosaurs), ichthyopterygians, 
mosasaurs, and sea turtles. Medium-sized groups, such as Thalattosauria and 
Thalattosuchia, had about ten genera, whereas small groups, such as Hupehsuchia 
and Pleurosauridae, consisted of only two genera or less. Sauropterygia and 
Ichthyopterygia were the two longest surviving lineages, with 185 and 160 
million years of stratigraphic spans, respectively. Mesozoic marine reptiles 
explored many different swimming styles and diets. Their diet included fish, 
cephalopods, other vertebrates, and hard-shelled invertebrates, whereas no 
herbivore is known at this point. Sauropterygians and ichthyopterygians gave 
rise to cruising forms that probably invaded outer seas. Intermediate forms 
that led to the cruising species are known in Ichthyopterygia but not as much 
in Sauropterygia. Discovery of new fossils should eventually reduce the gap in 
the fossil record.

Clark, J.M., and Xu, X. 2009. Evolutionary transitions among dinosaurs: 
examples from the Jurassic of China. Evolution: Education and Outreach 
2(2):236-247. doi: 10.1007/s12052-009-0137-0.

ABSTRACT: Dinosaurs have captured the popular imagination more than any other 
extinct group of organisms and are therefore a powerful tool in teaching 
evolutionary biology. Most students are familiar with a wide variety of 
dinosaurs and the relative suddenness of their extinction, but few are aware of 
the tremendous longevity of their time on Earth and the richness of their 
fossil record. We first review some of the best-known groups of dinosaurs and 
discuss how their less-specialized relatives elucidate the path through which 
each evolved. We then discuss our recent discovery of Yinlong downsi, a distant 
relative of Triceratops, and other fossils from Jurassic deposits in China to 
exemplify how the continuing discovery of fossils is filling out the dinosaur 
family tree.

Turner, A.H., Nesbitt, S.J., and Norell, M.A. 2009. A large alvarezsaurid from 
the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates 3648:1-14.

ABSTRACT: We report a new alvarezsaurid, Kol ghuva, from the Late Cretaceous of 
Mongolia that demonstrates that the clade was not restricted to small taxa 
(3â15 kg). The specimen was found at the Ukhaa Tolgod locality, which has 
previously produced only a single diminutive alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia deserti. 
Although known only from a well-preserved right foot, the new taxon is 
diagnosable by the following combination of characters: extensor grooves on 
digit IV phalanges; robust flexor tubercle on pedal unguals; MT III does not 
reach ankle; accessory dorsomedial flange absent on the medial side of the 
distal end of the MT II; MT II shorter than MT IV; and MT III extends higher 
proximally than other alvarezsaurids (more than  total metatarsus length). The 
new taxon provides additional insight into the diversity of this clade and the 
dinosaurian assemblage of Ukhaa Tolgod.

Balanoff, A.M., Xu, X., Kobayashi, Y., Matsufune, Y., and Norell, M.A. 2009. 
Cranial osteology of the theropod dinosaur Incisivosaurus gauthieri (Theropoda: 
Oviraptorosauria). American Museum Novitates 3651:1-35.

ABSTRACT: We provide a description of the holotype skull of the unusual 
oviraptorosaur Incisivosaurus gauthieri. Previous phylogenetic analyses have 
placed this taxon firmly within Oviraptorosauria near the base of the clade; 
however, until now only a cursory description of this important specimen was 
available. The presence of many primitive characteristics (e.g., maxillary and 
dentary teeth as well as an extended palate and rostrum) indicates that the 
observed similarities between avians and derived oviraptorids are convergences 
rather than shared derived characters. In addition, we clarify previous 
descriptions of several ambiguous anatomical features, most notably of the 
palate. We also employ computed tomographic (CT) analysis, which allows for a 
more complete description of the braincase and the reconstruction of an 
endocranial endocast. CT imagery reveals features that were before 
unobtainable, such as the presence of a replacement tooth behind the large 
rodentiform incisor in the premaxilla. This arrangement indicates that although 
the incisiform teeth of I. gauthieri are morphologically distinct they are 
replaced in typical archosaurian fashion.

Jerry D. Harris
Director of Paleontology
Dixie State College
Science Building
225 South 700 East
St. George, UT  84770   USA
Phone: (435) 652-7758
Fax: (435) 656-4022
E-mail: jharris@dixie.edu
 and     dinogami@gmail.com

"Experience is what you get when
you didn't get what you wanted."

                                 -- unknown