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Re: Darwin's young dead pet from Messel



A new 47MY old primate from Messel Pit: Darwinia messelae [sic], in honor of Charles Darwin's 200th birthday.

Franzen JL, Gingerich PD, Habersetzer J, Hurum JH, von Koenigswald W, et al. 2009 Complete Primate Skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: Morphology and Paleobiology. PLoS ONE 4(5): e5723. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005723

ABSTRACT

Background

The best European locality for complete Eocene mammal skeletons is Grube Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany. Although the site was surrounded by a para-tropical rain forest in the Eocene, primates are remarkably rare there, and only eight fragmentary specimens were known until now. Messel has now yielded a full primate skeleton. The specimen has an unusual history: it was privately collected and sold in two parts, with only the lesser part previously known. The second part, which has just come to light, shows the skeleton to be the most complete primate known in the fossil record.

Methodology/principal findings

We describe the morphology and investigate the paleobiology of the skeleton. The specimen is described as Darwinius masillae n.gen. n.sp. belonging to the Cercamoniinae. Because the skeleton is lightly crushed and bones cannot be handled individually, imaging studies are of particular importance. Skull radiography shows a host of teeth developing within the juvenile face. Investigation of growth and proportion suggest that the individual was a weaned and independent-feeding female that died in her first year of life, and might have attained a body weight of 650–900 g had she lived to adulthood. She was an agile, nail-bearing, generalized arboreal quadruped living above the floor of the Messel rain forest.

Conclusions/Significance

Darwinius masillae represents the most complete fossil primate ever found, including both skeleton, soft body outline and contents of the digestive tract. Study of all these features allows a fairly complete reconstruction of life history, locomotion, and diet. Any future study of Eocene-Oligocene primates should benefit from information preserved in the Darwinius holotype. Of particular importance to phylogenetic studies, the absence of a toilet claw and a toothcomb demonstrates that Darwinius masillae is not simply a fossil lemur, but part of a larger group of primates, Adapoidea, representative of the early haplorhine diversification.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0005723

A few personal comments on Darwinius and the ICZN:

"Darwinius" is ok, in honor of our preferred evolutionist as told above. The species name "D. messelae" is based on the Latin name of Messel: "Masilla = Messel in the Codex of the Lorsch monastery, 800 AD" (p. 5). But... the singular feminine -ae ending means "messelae" is dedicated to Miss or Mrs Messela, while the correct species name should have been "messelensis", the ending -ensis being added to the radical whatever its gender if it is a locality name.

I would like to know how such a mispelled species name could have been overlooked at the beginning of the 21st century...