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Re: Cómo se dice ther[o]pod y synapsid e

 It also makes sense if you know a little bit of the history of

 1) <j> starts off in Latin as representing the sound [j] as in "yam"
 (actually, <j> starts off as a fancy way of writing <i>, which
 remained the case through the late Middle Ages);

 2) In early Romance, [j] shifts to [d3] as in "judge" in most

This is now gradually happening _again_ in some kinds of Spanish (where the shifting [j] is written <y> and <ll>). I know a Chilean who uses the entire spectrum depending on... I don't know what actually.

 3) In something like the common ancestor of Spanish and Portuguese,
 [d3] weakens to [3] as in "trea_s_ure";

Has famously happened to <y> and <ll> in Argentina.

 4) In late medieval Spanish, [3] merges with [S] as in "shiny";

[3] was written <j> and "soft" <g>, [S] was written <x> as in <Don Quixote>. This gives you <Jiménez>, <Giménez> and <Ximénez> (no idea which, if any, of these is etymologically correct).

 6) In some contemporary Spanish dialects, [x] shifts to [h] as in

This has happened in Colombia and parts of Mexico, AFAIK.

 (for example, the "t" sounds in "top", "stop", "bit", "bitter", and
 "bitten" are phonetically quite distinct in General American English,
 but their distribution is predictable based on stress and the
 surrounding sounds, to the extent that native speakers have trouble
 hearing the difference, so we say they are all variants of a single
 phoneme /t/).

To elaborate on this: in <top> it's aspirated (there's sort of a [h] in it), aspiration being something I had to be taught in school because it doesn't exist in southern German; in <stop> it's not aspirated (...something I was never taught; I had to read about it a few years ago on teh intarwebz...), because the [s] has already let the air pressure out, and surprisingly many (most?) people go a step further and turn it into a voiceless [d], the same thing as the Spanish <t>; in <bit> it's unaspirated, to various extents glottalized (see below) in order to actively take the aspiration away, and for Americans it's usually unreleased (that is, the tongue is moved into that position, but it's never audibly moved out), so it takes some practice to even notice its existence if you haven't grown up with it; in <bitter> it's a _voiced_ sound, a so-called flap, for Americans; and in <bitten> it's unaspirated, has a nasal release, and is seriously glottalized for most people (that is, you hold your breath while saying it), so that it turns entirely into a glottal stop for some Americans (and most Britons), and that's something I first had to learn to recognize as a consonant, because where I come from it's a pause. Oh, and, the strength of aspiration also depends on how stressed a syllable is.

For comparison, in southern Standard German and many southern dialects such as mine, <t> is unaspirated [t] like in French, except that it turns into voiceless [d] (thus merging with <d>) under many circumstances at the ends of words.