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Pterosaur Ptarasites



Vransky, P., Ren, D., and Shih, C. 2010. Nakridletia ord. n. -- enigmatic 
insect parasites support sociality and endothermy of pterosaurs. AMBA Projekty 
8(1): 1-16.

ABSTRACT: Orders are gross formal ranks of insects. All ~350.000 named species 
of beetles belong to the single order Coleoptera; moths, skippers and 
butterflies form the order Lepidoptera. All solitary, social and parasitic 
wasps, with bees and ants are housed within Hymenoptera. Altogether, insects 
are placed within 42 orders (Rasnitsyn & Quicke 2002), of which 31 are living 
(Klass et al. 2002). Parasitic fleas and lice (Siphonaptera, Phthiraptera), 
predatory ice-crawlers and gladiators (Grylloblattodea, Mantophasmatodea) are 
all wingless as well as about 5% of insect species (Whiting et al. 2003).
    Parasitism and/or wingless require a general morphological reorganisation 
and thus the absence of insect orders parasitising extinct sauria was 
surprising. Now we designate a new insect order, Nakridletia, for excelently 
preserved Strashila incredibilis Rasnitsyn, 1992 (Strashilidae), Parazila 
saurica Vršanský et Ren, gen. et sp.n. and Vosila sinensis Vršanský et Ren, 
gen. et sp.n. (Vosilidae) - giant pterosaur parasites from the Upper Jurassic 
of Siberia (Rasnitsyn 1992) and the Middle Jurassic of China (Ren et al. 2002, 
Rasnitsyn & Zhang 2004, Chen et al. 2004, Liu et al 2004, Gao & Ren 2006) 
respectively. The latter also represents the oldest direct evidence for 
ectoparasitism.
    Pediculid lice-like adaptations, characteristic for infestation of 
stenothermous, restricted to endotherm social hominoids (Ferris 1951), indicate 
endothermy and perhaps also the sociality of pterosaurs.


For the life of me, I can't figure out which AMBA this journal belongs 
to...Association of Masters in Business Administration?  Australian Multiple 
Births Association? American Malting Barley Association?  This is why 
abbreviations shouldn't be used in journal titles...


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Jerry D. Harris
Director of Paleontology
Dixie State College
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E-mail: jharris@dixie.edu
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