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McDonald, A.T., Barrett, P.M., and Chapman, S.D. 2010. A new basal iguanodont 
(Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Wealden (Lower Cretaceous) of England. 
Zootaxa 2569:1-43. 

ABSTRACT: A nearly complete right dentary originally noted by Mantell in 1848 
is redescribed. The specimen, NHMUK 28660, was discovered in a quarry near 
Cuckfield, West Sussex, from the same formation as the original teeth of 
Iguanodon anglicus. Fresh examination reveals that NHMUK 28660 exhibits a 
single autapomorphy (a row of foramina extending from the ventral surface of 
the symphysis onto the lateral surface of the dentary) and a unique combination 
of characters that distinguish it from all other iguanodontian dentaries. In 
light of this and because I. anglicus is regarded as a nomen dubium to which 
additional material cannot be unambiguously referred, NHMUK 28660 is made the 
holotype of the new genus and species Kukufeldia tilgatensis.





Maina, J.N., West, J.B., Orgeig, S., Foot, N.J., Daniels, C.B., Kiama, S.G., 
Gehr, P., Mühlfeld, C., Blank, F., Müller, L., Lehmann, A., Brandenberger, C., 
and Rothen-Rutishauser, B. 2010. Recent advances in understanding some aspects 
of the structure and function of mammalian and avian lungs. Physiological and 
Biochemical Zoology 83(5):792-807. doi: 10.1086/652244.

ABSTRACT: Recent findings are reported about certain aspects of the structure 
and function of the mammalian and avian lungs that include (a) the architecture 
of the air capillaries (ACs) and the blood capillaries (BCs); (b) the pulmonary 
blood capillary circulatory dynamics; (c) the adaptive molecular, cellular, 
biochemical, compositional, and developmental characteristics of the surfactant 
system; (d) the mechanisms of the translocation of fine and ultrafine particles 
across the airway epithelial barrier; and (e) the particle?\cell interactions 
in the pulmonary airways. In the lung of the Muscovy duck Cairina moschata, at 
least, the ACs are rotund structures that are interconnected by narrow 
cylindrical sections, while the BCs comprise segments that are almost as long 
as they are wide. In contrast to the mammalian pulmonary BCs, which are highly 
compliant, those of birds practically behave like rigid tubes. Diving pressure 
has been a very powerful directional selection force that has influenced 
phenotypic changes in surfactant composition and function in lungs of marine 
mammals. After nanosized particulates are deposited on the respiratory tract of 
healthy human subjects, some reach organs such as the brain with potentially 
serious health implications. Finally, in the mammalian lung, dendritic cells of 
the pulmonary airways are powerful agents in engulfing deposited particles, and 
in birds, macrophages and erythrocytes are ardent phagocytizing cellular 
agents. The morphology of the lung that allows it to perform different 
functions―including gas exchange, ventilation of the lung by being compliant, 
defense, and secretion of important pharmacological factors―is reflected in its 
“compromise design.”





Simpson, W.S., Simpson, E.L., Wizevich, M.C., Fitzgerald, M.H., Hilbert-Wolf, 
H.L., and Tindall, S.E. 2010. A preserved Late Cretaceous biological soil crust 
in the capping sandstone member, Wahweap Formation, Grand Staircase-Escalante 
National Monument, Utah: Paleoclimatic implications. Sedimentary Geology. doi: 
10.1016/j.sedgeo.2010.07.004. 

ABSTRACT: Modern biological soil crusts develop under semiarid to arid 
conditions and are characterized by diverse communities of micro- and 
macro-organisms. The upper meter of the Upper Cretaceous capping sandstone 
member of the Wahweap Formation in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, 
Utah contains an outcrop of an ancient biological soil crust preserved in 
matrix-rich quartz sandstone. The interpretation is based on comparison with 
modern biological soil crust analogs, specifically similarities in 
morphological expression, sorting, and proximity to associated eolianites. This 
study reports on this rarely recognized type of paleosol, a biological soil 
crust and discusses the sedimentologic and paleoclimatic implications.





de Souza Carvalho, I., de Gasparini, Z.B., Salgado, L., de Vasconcellos, F.M., 
and da Silva Marinho, T. 2010. Climate's role in the distribution of the 
Cretaceous terrestrial Crocodyliformes throughout Gondwana. Palaeogeography, 
Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.08.003.

ABSTRACT: A high diversity of terrestrial crocodyliform species has been found 
in the continental Cretaceous deposits of Gondwana. They are widespread in the 
sedimentary basins of Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Bolivia, Morocco, Cameroon, 
Niger, Malawi, Madagascar and Pakistan, from alluvial, fluvial and lacustrine 
deposits. A peculiar aspect of these terrestrial crocodyliforms is that only 
some of them are cosmopolitan. They comprise distinct groups as the basal 
Notosuchia, baurusuchids, sphagesaurids and Sebecian peirosaurids. There is a 
distribution pattern of the terrestrial Crocodyliformes faunas throughout the 
Cretaceous. The oldest are composed of the small and probably omnivorous 
Notosuchia and Araripesuchus, found in Early Cretaceous deposits. In the Late 
Cretaceous this fauna was enriched by the medium-sized to large-size 
baurusuchids, sphagesaurids, peirosaurids and larger Araripesuchus which 
present specializations as active terrestrial predators. The distribution 
analysis of the terrestrial Crocodyliformes from Early and Late Cretaceous 
palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic maps indicates that temperature was the 
principal influence on their Gondwanan distribution. Although expressed 
seasonality, aridity is a limiting factor for the distribution of extant 
crocodilians. The Cretaceous basal Notosuchia, baurusuchids, sphagesaurids, 
Araripesuchus, Sebecian peirosaurids, are found in arid climatic belts during 
Early and Late Cretaceous. To live in a hot and arid climate they have 
presumably developed ecological strategies that allowed such habits. The 
aridity or seasonal warm and cyclic dry and wet climate periods plays a role, 
that have not yet been analyzed, that may explain the domain of bizarre 
Crocodyliformes in Gondwana during the Cretaceous.





Hübner, T.R., and Rauhut, O.W.M. 2010. A juvenile skull of Dysalotosaurus 
lettowvorbecki (Ornithischia: Iguanodontia), and implications for cranial 
ontogeny, phylogeny, and taxonomy in ornithopod dinosaurs. Zoological Journal 
of the Linnean Society. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00620.x.

ABSTRACT: A juvenile skull of Dysalotosaurus lettowvorbecki, a basal 
iguanodontian from the Middle Dinosaur Member (Kimmeridgian) of the Tendaguru 
Beds (Tanzania), is described and reconstructed in detail. Further preparation 
and computed tomography scans have uncovered additional and formerly unknown 
skull elements, especially of the lower jaw. The reconstruction of the skull 
reveals ontogenetic differences to earlier reconstructions, which were based on 
specimens of relatively older individuals. The most notable ontogenetic changes 
in Dysalotosaurus  are a relative lengthening of the muzzle, a decrease in the 
relative size of the orbit, and a straightening of the posterior skull roof. 
Additionally, ontogenetic variations were found in many single elements of the 
skull, all of which reflect the three main tendencies described above. 
Furthermore, there might have been an ontogenetic change in the diet, from 
omnivorous juveniles to fully herbivorous adults. The results of this study 
will help to evaluate ontogenetic stages in other ornithopods, and will shed 
light on a crucial stage of ornithopod evolution that culminated in the highly 
specialized and diverse hadrosaurs of the Cretaceous. Many of the evolutionary 
changes seen in this lineage can be attributed to peramorphism, and probably 
reflect a perfection of the adaptation towards an obligatory herbivorous diet.




Xing, L.-D., Harris, J.D., Wang, K.-B., and Li, R.-H. 2010. An Early Cretaceous 
non-avian dinosaur and bird footprint assemblage from the Laiyang Group in the 
Zhucheng basin, Shandong Province, China. Geological Bulletin of China 
29(8):1105-1112. 




Klein, H., Voigt, S., Hminna, A., Saber, H., Schneider, H., and Hmich, D. 2010. 
Early Triassic archosaur-dominated footprint assemblage from the Argana Basin 
(Western High Atlas, Morocco). Ichnos 17. doi: 10.1080/10420940.2010.510030. 

ABSTRACT: An assemblage of abundant and well-preserved tetrapod footprints has 
been discovered in the Tanamert Member (T3) of the Triassic Timezgadiouine 
Formation (Argana basin, western High Atlas, Morocco). It is the first fossil 
record from T3. Surfaces from different localities show a uniform tetrapod 
ichnofauna that consists of chirotherian and small lacertoid forms. The 
chirotherians are assigned to the plexus Protochirotherium―Synaptichnium, their 
trackmakers interpreted as basal archosaurs. The lacertoid imprints show close 
affinities with Rhynchosauroides and may reflect archosauromorphs or 
lepidosauromorphs. Protochirotherium―Synaptichnium assemblages are 
characteristic of the Early Triassic and were known previously only from units 
of this age in central Europe. Biostratigraphically, the European record 
implies a wide-spread pre-Anisian Protochirotherium―Synaptichnium dominated 
assemblage preceding the first appearance of Chirotherium barthii near the 
Olenekian-Anisian boundary. The stratigraphic position of T3 between Late 
Permian (uppermost T2) and Middle Triassic (T4) and the European correlatives 
suggest an Early Triassic age of this unit. It is the first record of Early 
Triassic continental deposits in Morocco. The surfaces from T3 open up 
perspectives for further contributions to ecology, biogeography and locomotion 
of early archosaurs. Furthermore, excellent outcrops and quality of footprint 
preservation in the Argana basin offer a potential for clarification of 
ichnotaxonomic and biostratigraphic issues.


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Jerry D. Harris
Director of Paleontology
Dixie State College
Science Building
225 South 700 East
St. George, UT  84770   USA
Phone: (435) 652-7758
Fax: (435) 656-4022
E-mail: jharris@dixie.edu
 and     dinogami@gmail.com
http://cactus.dixie.edu/jharris/


The way to a man's heart is through
his stomach.

                   -- old proverb

"The way to a man's heart is through
the fourth and fifth ribs."

                   -- Katchoo (and others)