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RE: Torosaurus is Triceratops

  Having just gotten a hold of this paper (thanks, kind patron!) I have two 
brief comments:

  1. No discussion in the paper concerns the external fundamental system, 
generally used to determine a limit on adult growth. This system's relationship 
to metaplastic transformation (up to adult morphology or continuing past adult 
morphology) is not addressed in the work, and this means the issue of the level 
of transformation that occurs pre- or post-ontogenetic skeletal maturity and 
the use of "adult" is subjective in the study.

  2. That said, the information seems compelling, and the traditional lack of 
ability to find skeletal autapomorphies from which to diagnose *Torosaurus* 
from *Triceratops* (cranially, at least) appears related to this trend. What 
should be noted is that extensive ontogenies are unknown for other chasmosaurs, 
but when present, they resemble *Triceratops* (perietal solid, squamosal short 
and semi-circular) which may mean that *Torosaurus* resembles a very adult 
*Triceratops*, while *Triceratops* resembles a "sub-adult" *Torosaurus* (these 
do not mean they require synonymy, though). Very nice paper.


Jaime A. Headden
The Bite Stuff (site v2)

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