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Re: Turtles are parareptiles, and Eunotosaurus is their sister

Oh. OK. Thanks.  That makes me feel better.

Therapods behind me go, we knew it! 'Dyanptids is twuly alien. Wight in their with turtles! We knew there had to be an explanation.

Dora Smith
Austin, TX

----- Original Message ----- From: "Thomas R. Holtz, Jr." <tholtz@umd.edu>
To: <villandra@austin.rr.com>; <dinosaur@usc.edu>
Sent: Wednesday, June 09, 2010 9:08 AM
Subject: RE: Turtles are parareptiles, and Eunotosaurus is their sister

From: owner-DINOSAUR@usc.edu [mailto:owner-DINOSAUR@usc.edu]
On Behalf Of Dora Smith

Turtles aren't reptiles, now.   The rest of it got lost in
the technical

Sorry, but really it isn't that technical...

I'm afraid that was Eunotosaurus is doesn't tell
me much right
off the bat.   It doesn't sound like the term for "basal reptile".

Eunotosaurus, a Middle Permian South African reptile:

Pretty soon, there will be no reptiles left that are reptiles.

Using the taxonomy in this paper Reptilia includes two major branches,
parareptiles and eureptiles. Parareptiles ("anapsids" of some useage) are a
group of mostly Permian and Triassic forms. Eureptiles are diapsids and
their closest relatives.

So turtles are still reptiles, but they are not closer to the
tuatara-lizard-snake lineage than to the alligator-bird lineage (both
alternatives had been proposed in recent years.)

What's a crocodile; a paratherapod?

An archosaur.

What about a snake?

A lepidosaur.

Thomas R. Holtz, Jr.
Email: tholtz@umd.edu Phone: 301-405-4084
Office: Centreville 1216
Senior Lecturer, Vertebrate Paleontology
Dept. of Geology, University of Maryland
Fax: 301-314-9661

Faculty Director, Science & Global Change Program, College Park Scholars
Fax: 301-314-9843

Mailing Address: Thomas R. Holtz, Jr.
Department of Geology
Building 237, Room 1117
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742 USA