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Re: Tyrannosaurus Tail Torqueâ

2010/11/21 Sim Koning <simkoning@msn.com>:
>>There are, however, cases of toads partially eaten by otters (withhindlimbs 
>>almost entirely eaten by otters) and they survive even pastthe interest >of 
>>the otter. How do they do with the arteries?
> That's a toad. In animals with high pressure circulatory systems, something 
> like a ruptured brachial or femoral artery can kill in minutes or less 
> depending on the artery and how and where it is damaged (at least in the case 
> of humans).

Yes, that may be the main reason... However, another reason to avoid
the demise I can imagine, which may better serve the ectotherm but
also the high-blood-pressure endotherm, is a response of vessel
constriction in the wounded large vessel. This exists at least in
autotomy-practising lizards, and some shift of sorts also occur at
birth in amniotes, but I know little about the generality of these
mechanisms in vertebrate blood vessels...
There are cases of badly wounded humans, even transfixed by the teeth
of elephants and hippos, which still lived; also, there are many
examples of humans being mutilated in different degrees and still
living (however, these humans may have been able to survive thanks to
early intervention and stopping of further blood loss).