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Giganotosaurus endocast described
From: Ben Creisler
In case this paper has not been mentioned yet:
Carabajal, Ariana Paulina; Canale, Juan Ignacio, 2010.
Cranial endocast of the carcharodontosaurid theropod
Giganotosaurus carolinii Coria & Salgado, 1995
Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie -
Abhandlungen 258(2): 249-256.
A complete endocast of Giganotosaurus carolinii Coria &
Salgado, 1995 was made in latex after removing
mechanically the sediment filling of the cerebral cavity
of the braincase, thereby allowing the description of the
endocranial anatomy of the specimen. The endocast was
compared with the other few known natural or artificial
theropod endocasts, including the two species of the
African allosauroid species Carcharodontosaurus saharicus
and C. idiguensis. As in Carcharodontosaurus, the
olfactory bulbs in Giganotosaurus are aligned with the
forebrain, the midbrain is posteroventrally inclined and
the hindbrain is parallel but ventral to the forebrain,
showing similarly angled cephalic and pontine flexures.
The cranial nerves and blood vessels have a similar
disposition as in Carcharodontosaurus saharicus. However,
in Giganotosaurus there is only one branch for cranial
nerve XII, and cranial nerve XI has a separate internal
opening from the vagus foramen (metotic foramen). In C.
saharicus, there is a separate opening as well, but it is
anterior in position and was probably utilized by cranial
nerve IX. The length of the endocast of Giganotosaurus,
including the olfactory bulbs, is approximately 19 %
longer than the endocast in Carcharodontosaurus