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Re: Science feather strength debate

 the Nudds and Dyke's feather paper is not alone in inferring
 extremely poor flight abilities for _Archaeopteryx_ and
 _Confuciusornis_. There is the work by Senter on scapular
 orientation, which showed that neither bird was capable of a complete
 flight stroke.

Baffling though it is, they were both apparently unable to lift their arms above shoulder level. That kinda sucks.

 Then there's the matter of the keel - absurdly small in
 _Confuciusornis_, non-existent in _Archaeopteryx_.

Bats have no keel at all...

That said, the keel of extant birds does not immediately ossify. It stays cartilaginous and unfossilizable for quite some time.