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Re: Senter 2006, Confuciusornis, and humeral mobility
And, of course, bats as large as flying foxes fly just fine with
short sterna, small sternal keels, and humeral elevations around 25
Do you just mean the elevation of the humerus above the glenoid, or the
elevation of the wing above the body? That's the same in birds, but not
in bats. In bats, the joint between wing and body is the joint between
clavicle and sternum. Using this trick, I can "lift" my arms something
like 40° dorsal to my body. My scapulae are positioned dorsally, and so
are those of bats. I have trouble imagining that bats have more
restricted upper-arm movements than I do.
2) No extant glider with a mass within an order of magnitude of 180
grams functions without a drag - providing tail
Is that what the tail does in gliders? In flying birds, the tail --
which is, of course, very different from that of any glider -- reduces
induced drag (I can probably dig up the paper if someone is interested).