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Re: Dinofarts / Sauropod methane emissions



 Through unclear mechanisms (we have candidates and can speculate),
 genes from the ancestor of mitochondria have been moved to the
 nucleus.

That's extremely easy and inevitable! Any time an endosymbiote breaks up (for whatever reason) inside the host cell, its DNA can end up in the nucleus. DNA that lies around in a eukaryotic cell can always end up in the nucleus. All eukaryotes contain genes of clearly mitochondrial origin, and it's apparently extremely common to have pseudogenes of mitochondrial origin. (Where chloroplasts are or were present, the same holds for genes of chloroplast...ic origin.) The entire mitochondrial genome often ends up as a pseudogene in the nucleus; such numts -- nuclear copies of the mt genome -- are common enough to have messed with phylogenetics (there's a case in elephants I dimly remember), because they were mistakenly isolated along with mtDNA.

This is the most parsimonious way to account for the many bacterial genes that all eukaryotes share.