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Re: Dinofarts / Sauropod methane emissions
Yes, but that doesn't answer the mechanism by which it crosses the
nuclear pore, or integrates with the nuclear chromosomes.
Again, it still happens today; numts are common. Linear DNA strands are
easily thin enough to fit through a nuclear pore, and "homologous
recombination" (a misnomer) is almost universal.
In vertebrates, mitochondria have a modified genetic code. Therefore, mt
genes that end up in the nucleus are automatically pseudogenes. But
that's not the case in many other eukaryotes.
The nuclear envelope disappears during mitosis -
Not in all eukaryotes by far. I don't know what the plesiomorphy is.
All of the above?
Probably all of the above at different points.