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Titanosaur osteoderm from Cretaceous of Brazil

From: Ben Creisler

A recent paper not yet mentioned:

Rafael Matos Lindoso, Thiago da Silva Marinho, Rodrigo Miloni
Santucci, Manuel Alfredo Medeiros & Ismar de Souza Carvalho (2013)
A titanosaur (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) osteoderm from the Alcântara
Formation (Cenomanian), São Luís Basin, Northeastern Brazil.
Cretaceous Research 45: 43–48

Among titanosaurs, osteoderms are morphologically diverse and have
been reported from deposits in South America, Africa, Madagascar,
Eurasia and Oceania. In Brazil, titanosaur osteoderms are rare and
have only been recorded from Bauru Basin sedimentary rocks. Here, we
describe a keeled titanosaur osteoderm, which is the first occurrence
of an osteoderm specimen in the São Luís Basin, Northeastern Brazil.
This osteoderm is characterized by an external bulb, an internal root,
and a very rugose cingulum limiting the external and internal
surfaces. These characteristics are typical of Titanosauria dermal
bones, and this specimen strengthens the idea that the armored
sauropods were present during the early Late Cretaceous of
Northeastern Brazil, extending their distribution in the northernmost
portion of South America.