[Date Prev][Date Next][Thread Prev][Thread Next][Date Index][Thread Index][Subject Index][Author Index]

Re: Why most students can't draw accurate dinosaurs and other news

Richard W. Travsky <rtravsky@uwyo.edu> wrote:

> Actually, what occurred to me is that because the animal is bipedal,
> the wont is to render like a (bipedal) human.  I would be curious
> how birds get drawn in comparision.

During walking and running, most birds tend to keep their trunks close
to horizontal, although slightly tilted upward at the cranial versus
caudal ends.  Among birds, penguins are exceptional in that the trunk
is held vertically during walking.  (For a review of posture during
bipedal locomotion, check out Alexander 2004; J. Anat. 204: 321-330).

_Archaeopteryx_ and especially _Confuciusornis_ have sometimes been
restored with a near-vertical trunk (e.g., Hou et al., 1995, 1996).
This is certainly *wrong*.  Such restorations are biased by the
interpretation of these animals as specialist tree climbers (A.
Feduccia and L. Martin are counted among the co-authors).  A more
realistic restoration of _Confuciusornis_, with a near-horizontal
trunk, is featured in Chiappe et al.. (1999, Fig. 69A; available at