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Re: 3-D track formation analysis with X-rays

Does anyone know why the Palaeontologia Electronica website is now
asking for a password to access articles? At least it is for me.  I've
thought the journal was Open Access.

-Bill Parker

On Fri, Jan 25, 2013 at 9:58 AM, Ben Creisler <bcreisler@gmail.com> wrote:
> From: Ben Creisler
> bcreisler@gmail.com
> New in Palaeontologia Electronica:
> Richard G. Ellis and Stephen M. Gatesy (2013)
> A biplanar X-ray method for three-dimensional analysis of track formation.
> Palaeontologia Electronica 16 (1); 1T, 16p;
> http://palaeo-electronica.org/content/2013/371-x-ray-track-analysis
> Tracks arise through a complex interplay between animal and substrate.
> Studying this dynamic process is challenging because most
> foot-sediment and sediment-sediment interactions are rapid and hidden
> from view. Herein, we describe a new method for visualizing and
> quantifying three-dimensional movements of both a morphologically
> accurate indenter and realistic sediment during track formation. Our
> method uses biplanar X-ray imaging and an animation-based workflow to
> reconstruct the trajectories of metal beads seeded throughout the
> sediment volume. X-rays allow sub-surface motion normally concealed by
> the foot and opaque matrix to be analyzed at 30 frames per second with
> sub-millimeter resolution. Results from two case studies of tridactyl
> tracks in semi-liquid mud provide novel, animated visualizations,
> examples of ensemble and particle-specific data, as well as measures
> of precision and accuracy. This methodology has the potential to
> mechanistically link specific track morphologies to foot movement,
> clarify undertrack formation, validate computational models, and set a
> new standard for evidence-based reconstruction of locomotion from
> fossil footprints.