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dale mcinnes <wdm1949@hotmail.com> wrote:

> Yes. It's nothing to do with the modern and correct reconstruction
> of these animals but rather the idea today that they all appear to
> be "locked down" into one pose.

I see what you're driving at here.  Standing upwards at an angle of
around 30 degrees doesn't sound unreasonable to me.  But as long as
this doesn't get mistaken as the default posture of all theropods -
especially tyrannosaurs.

I think a distinction has to be made between "striking a pose", and
how a theropod habitually stood, walked, or ran.  When running, the
trunk was possibly held closer to the horizontal (i.e., at a shallower
angle) than when walking, and (especially) when standing.  That's if
modern terrestrial birds are any guide (e.g., guineafowl, re Gatesy,
1999).  There are exceptions - such as the plains-wanderer
(_Pedionomus torquatus_), which habitually adopts an upright stance
(mentioned by Ron Orenstein), and of course penguins, which are an
extreme example.

The other thing to take into account is that many large predatory
theropods, including tyrannosaurids, attacked with the head first.  So
when in "attack mode" it makes no sense for the head to be held too