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New synapsids Tambacarnifex (from Permian of Germany) and Mandagomphodon (from Triassic of Tanzania) in new book
From: Ben Creisler
The book Early Evolutionary History of the Synapsida, published by
Springer, is now out online.
The copyright is given as 2014.
Christian F. Kammerer, Kenneth D. Angielczyk & Jörg Fröbisch (2013)
Early Evolutionary History of the Synapsida : Vertebrate Paleobiology
and Paleoanthropology 2014.
Springer Netherlands. pp: 337.
ISBN: 978-94-007-6840-6 (Print) 978-94-007-6841-3 (Online)
Introduction and table of contents [front matter] and indexes [back
matter] can be downloaded for free.
I would point out two new taxa:
David S Berman, Amy C. Henrici, Stuart S. Sumida, Thomas Martens &
Valerie Pelletier (2013)
First European Record of a Varanodontine (Synapsida: Varanopidae):
Member of a Unique Early Permian Upland Paleoecosystem, Tambach Basin,
Early Evolutionary History of the Synapsida: 69-86
A new genus and species of varanodontine varanopid, Tambacarnifex
unguifalcatus, is described on the basis of the greater portion of the
postcranium and a closely associated partial left dentary from the
Lower Permian (Wolfcampian) Tambach Formation, the lowermost unit of
the Upper Rotliegend, of the Bromacker locality in the midregion of
the Thuringian Forest near Gotha, central Germany. Tambacarnifex
unguifalcatus can be distinguished from all other varanopids on the
basis of unique features of its vertebrae and unguals. A cladistic
analysis of Varanopidae resolves T. unguifalcatus as nested within the
varanodontines as the sister taxon of Varanops in a terminal
dichotomy, which in turn forms the sister clade of the terminal
dichotomy Varanodon+Watongia. The position of Aerosaurus is unaltered
from previous analyses as the basal taxon of Varanodontinae.
Elliotsmithia, which has been assigned alternately to both the
varanodontines and the mycterosaurines, is resolved as a member of the
latter. Tambacarnifex unguifalcatus is, therefore, the only
varanodontine known from outside of North America. Within the
Mycterosaurinae clade Mycterosaurus and Mesenosaurus resolve as a
terminal dichotomy with Elliotsmithia and Heleosaurus related as
successive sister taxa. As in previous analyses, Archaeovenator
retains its position as the basal taxon of Varanopidae. Tambacarnifex
unguifalcatus was an apex predator in a unique, heretofore
undocumented Early Permian paleoecosystem in which the vertebrates
were highly terrestrial inhabitants of an upland terrestrial setting,
and constituted an early stage in the evolution of the modern
terrestrial vertebrate trophic system, with herbivores greatly
outnumbering apex predators in diversity, abundance, and biomass.
James A. Hopson (2013)
The Traversodontid Cynodont Mandagomphodon hirschsoni from the Middle
Triassic of the Ruhuhu Valley, Tanzania.
Early Evolutionary History of the Synapsida: 233-253
Mandagomphodon hirschsoni (gen. nov., comb. nov.) is one of three
species of traversodontid cynodont placed in Scalenodon [type species
S. angustifrons (Parrington, 1946)] by Crompton (1972). It is based on
a partial skull and lower jaws from the Middle Triassic of the Ruhuhu
Valley, southwestern Tanzania. The upper postcanine teeth were used to
diagnose species of Scalenodon, but newer traversodontid material
indicates that the three species represent distinct genera. Material
of “S.” hirschsoni, except for the postcanines, has not been
described. It is unusual among traversodontids in having only three
upper incisors, which are enlarged and procumbent. Three enlarged,
procumbent anterior lower teeth are interpreted as two incisors and a
canine. Analysis of postcanine wear facets indicates that the power
stroke of the lower teeth was entirely in a posterior direction,
including a slightly downward and backward grinding movement at the
end of the stroke.