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Re: [dinosaur-l] Mupashi, new therocephalian therapsid from Upper Permian of Zambia + more non-dino papers




The two-part Oxford dodo article pdfs are now free:

M. Nowak-Kemp & J. P. Hume (2016)
The Oxford Dodo. Part 1: the museum history of the Tradescant Dodo:
ownership, displays and audience.
Historical Biology (advance online publication)
DOI:10.1080/08912963.2016.1152471
http: // www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08912963.2016.1152471



M. Nowak-Kemp & J. P. Hume (2016)
The Oxford Dodo. Part 2: from curiosity to icon and its role in
displays, education and research.
Historical Biology (advance online publication)
DOI:10.1080/08912963.2016.1155211
http: // www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08912963.2016.1155211




On Thu, Mar 10, 2016 at 5:35 PM, Ben Creisler <bcreisler@gmail.com> wrote:
Ben Creisler
bcreisler@gmail.com

Some recent non-dino papers that may be of interest:

Adam K. Huttenlocker & Christian A. Sidor (2016)
The first karenitid (Therapsida, Therocephalia) from the Upper Permian
of Gondwana and the biogeography of Permo-Triassic therocephalians.
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (advance online publication)
DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2016.1111897
http: // www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02724634.2016.1111897

Therocephalians were an ecologically diverse group of therapsids whose
long stratigraphic record and widespread distribution during Permian
and Triassic times make them important for understanding biogeographic
patterns during a major faunal transition. Here, we describe a new
therocephalian, Mupashi migrator gen. et sp. nov., from the upper
Madumabisa Mudstone Formation (upper Permian) of Zambia's Luangwa
Basin. The specimen has a long snout with a maxilla–vomerine contact
on the hard palate, a high antecanine tooth count and numerous
postcanines, and a conspicuous boss on the dentary angle whose
structure is identical to that of the Russian baurioid Karenites.
Additional endocranial anatomy, including palatal and braincase
features, are revealed by high-resolution X-ray computed tomography
and described in detail in light of the growing availability of
tomographic data for therapsids. A phylogenetic analysis of 56
therapsid taxa and 136 cranial and postcranial characters recovers
Mupashi as the sister taxon to Karenites, placing the pair between
basal ictidosuchid-grade baurioids and the later Triassic
bauriamorphs. Parsimony optimizations of geographic occurrences are
ambiguous regarding the origination centers of therocephalian
subclades. However, the patterns are suggestive of either (1) rapid,
early dispersal events of Eutherocephalia and its major subgroups from
a Laurasian center during the early–late Permian or, more likely, (2)
within-province diversifications with occasional dispersal events
occurring between provinces. Regardless, these associations strengthen
the hypothesis that unknown but effective dispersal routes to high
latitudes were available to therapsids and other tetrapods at least
until early–late Permian times.

http: // zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B1E95B00-85BC-45E3-A823-841AD701A3F3

===

Arnaud Brignon (2016)
Redécouverte des «crocodiles fossiles des environs du Mans» de Georges
Cuvier après deux siècles d’oubli. [Rediscovery two centuries later of
George Cuvier's overlooked "fossil crocodiles from the Le Mans area" ]
Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France  187(2): 105-120
doi: 10.2113/gssgfbull.187.2.105
http: // bsgf.geoscienceworld.org/content/187/2/105.abstract


In 1808 and then in 1824, Georges Cuvier reported in the region of Le
Mans (Département of Sarthe, northwestern France) fossil crocodiles
upon which the species Crocodilus maunyi GRAY, 1831 was created. He
had been informed of these findings by the naturalist Jean Louis
Charles Maulny (1758–1815) and by Jean Antoine Daudin (1749–1832), the
first curator of the natural history museum of Le Mans. Due the lack
of published figures, this material has remained enigmatic for two
centuries. Unpublished watercolors preserved in the archives of
Georges Cuvier unveil the specimens described by Cuvier under the name
“fossil crocodiles from Le Mans area”. They include teeth, vertebrae
and portion of jaws of marine crocodylomorphs and plesiosaurians
discovered in the Mesozoic of the Département of Sarthe (Bathonian,
Callovian, Cenomanian ?). One of these drawings depicts a pliosaurid
tooth discovered in the Bathonian of Bernay-en-Champagne that would be
the earliest discovery of a representative of this group. Two other
drawings show a portion of mandible of a marine crocodylomorph
(Thalattosuchia, Metriorhynchidae indeterminate) and a vertebra of a
plesiosaurian (Plesiosauria indeterminate) from the middle Callovian
of Chaufour-Notre-Dame, still preserved in the Musée Vert, the natural
history museum of Le Mans. These two specimens were discovered in 1816
by a local amateur, doctor Eusèbe Marie Tendron (1778–1854).
Crocodilus maunyi GRAY, 1831 is considered a nomen dubium due to the
lack of diagnostic characters offered by its syntypes.

===



M. Nowak-Kemp & J. P. Hume (2016)
The Oxford Dodo. Part 1: the museum history of the Tradescant Dodo:
ownership, displays and audience.
Historical Biology (advance online publication)
DOI:10.1080/08912963.2016.1152471
http: // www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08912963.2016.1152471


The Dodo Raphus cucullatus, a giant flightless pigeon endemic to
Mauritius, became extinct in the late seventeenth century, and so
rapid was the birds’ disappearance, that by the beginning of the
nineteenth century even its very existence was questioned. Only four
specimens were then recorded in European museums, of which the most
famous was the Tradescant or Oxford Dodo, now in the Oxford University
Museum of Natural History. It comprised the head and one foot, and
unique soft tissue in the form of skin and traces of feathers. The
history of this specimen is reviewed, including the still unresolved
question of how it came to Britain, and we provide evidence to show
that it was stuffed but probably never mounted. The changes of
ownership, and its cataloguing and curation in the different museums
are also described, along with its varying roles in entertainment,
education and research from the earliest years until the nineteenth
century. This is part one of a two-part article; the second deals with
the Tradescant Dodo from its dissection in the 1840s until the present
day.

****
M. Nowak-Kemp & J. P. Hume (2016)
The Oxford Dodo. Part 2: from curiosity to icon and its role in
displays, education and research.
Historical Biology (advance online publication)
DOI:10.1080/08912963.2016.1155211
http: // www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08912963.2016.1155211


The Tradescant or Oxford Dodo has played an important role in
exhibition and education throughout its 360-year history, and has been
the subject of scientific research reflecting changing interests and
techniques over this time. Due to confusion over its relationships,
its placement in the classification systems continually changed, until
the dissection in 1847 of the head and foot confirmed its columbid
(pigeons and doves) affinities. Here, we describe the dissection of
the head and foot and the Tradescant Dodo’s display history, from the
late nineteenth century until the present day, and also its use in
education. We discuss the importance of the Tradescant Dodo to Lewis
Carroll, whose ‘Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland’ made the dodo aware
to a worldwide audience. We further provide an overview of recent work
including electron microscopic study of feathers, mDNA analysis,
cytological investigation of the skin and measuring of the brain
capacity, all of which have added to our knowledge of the evolution
and ecology of this most extraordinary of birds. Research is ongoing;
the Tradescant Dodo is presently subject to CT scanning and functional
analysis. This is the second part of a two-part paper.

===


Gerald Mayr (2016)
Fragmentary but distinctive: three new avian species from the early
Eocene of Messel, with the earliest record of medullary bone in a
Cenozoic bird.
Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen 279 (3): 273-286
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/njgpa/2016/0555
http: // www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/njbgeol/2016/00000279/00000003/art00004

Three new avian species are reported from the early Eocene German
fossil site Messel, two of which are named. Lapillavis incubarens gen.
et sp. nov. is based on a partial postcranial skeleton, which shows
some resemblance to the recently described Foshanornis songi from the
early Eocene of China. The phylogenetic affinities of L. incubarens
are uncertain, but the holotype exhibits medullary bone, which is
characteristic of females shortly before and during egg laying. The
specimen constitutes the earliest evidence of medullary bone in a
Cenozoic bird and allows the first gender determination of a fossil
bird from Messel. Another new species, Cypseloramphus dimidius gen. et
sp. nov., is tentatively identified as a basal representatives of the
Apodiformes. Furthermore reported is an isolated skull, which
resembles the skull of the significantly larger Foro panarium
(Foratidae) from the early Eocene North American Green River
Formation.


===

Free pdf:

Joseph N. Keating &, Philip C. J. Donoghue (2016)
Histology and affinity of anaspids, and the early evolution of the
vertebrate dermal skeleton.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B 283: 20152917
DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2015.2917
http: // rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/283/1826/20152917


The assembly of the gnathostome bodyplan constitutes a formative
episode in vertebrate evolutionary history, an interval in which the
mineralized skeleton and its canonical suite of cell and tissue types
originated. Fossil jawless fishes, assigned to the gnathostome
stem-lineage, provide an unparalleled insight into the origin and
evolution of the skeleton, hindered only by uncertainty over the
phylogenetic position and evolutionary significance of key clades.
Chief among these are the jawless anaspids, whose skeletal
composition, a rich source of phylogenetic information, is poorly
characterized. Here we survey the histology of representatives
spanning anaspid diversity and infer their generalized skeletal
architecture. The anaspid dermal skeleton is composed of odontodes
comprising spheritic dentine and enameloid, overlying a basal layer of
acellular parallel fibre bone containing an extensive shallow canal
network. A recoded and revised phylogenetic analysis using equal and
implied weights parsimony resolves anaspids as monophyletic, nested
among stem-gnathostomes. Our results suggest the anaspid dermal
skeleton is a degenerate derivative of a histologically more complex
ancestral vertebrate skeleton, rather than reflecting primitive
simplicity. Hypotheses that anaspids are ancestral skeletonizing
lampreys, or a derived lineage of jawless vertebrates with paired
fins, are rejected.


====

Free pdf:

Michael A. Berthaume (2016)
On the Relationship Between Tooth Shape and Masticatory Efficiency: A
Finite Element Study.
The Anatomical Record (advance online publication)
DOI: 10.1002/ar.23328
http: // onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ar.23328/abstract
http: // onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ar.23328/epdf



Dental topography has successfully linked disparate tooth shapes to
distinct dietary categories, but not to masticatory efficiency. Here,
the relationship between four dental topographic metrics and brittle
food item breakdown efficiency during compressive biting was
investigated using a parametric finite element model of a bunodont
molar. Food item breakdown efficiency was chosen to represent
masticatory efficiency as it isolated tooth–food item interactions,
where most other categories of masticatory efficiency include several
aspects of the masticatory process. As relative food item size may
affect the presence/absence of any relationship, four isometrically
scaled, hemispherical, proxy food items were considered. Topographic
metrics were uncorrelated to food item breakdown efficiency
irrespective of relative food item size, and dental topographic
metrics were largely uncorrelated to one another. The lack of a
correlation between topographic metrics and food item breakdown
efficiency is not unexpected as not all food items break down in the
same manner (e.g., nuts are crushed, leaves are sheared), and only one
food item shape was considered. In addition, food item breakdown
efficiency describes tooth–food item interactions and requires
location and shape specific information, which are absent from dental
topographic metrics. This makes it unlikely any one efficiency metric
will be correlated to all topographic metrics. These results emphasize
the need to take into account how food items break down during biting,
ingestion, and mastication when investigating the mechanical
relationship between food item shape, size, mechanical properties, and
breakdown, and tooth shape.

=====
Free pdf:

P. David Polly, C. Tristan Stayton, Elizabeth R. Dumont, Stephanie E.
Pierce, Emily J. Rayfield & Kenneth D. Angielczyk (2016)
Combining geometric morphometrics and finite element analysis with
evolutionary modeling: towards a synthesis.
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.
DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2016.1111225
http: // www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02724634.2016.1111225


Geometric morphometrics (GM) and finite element analysis (FEA) are
increasingly common techniques for the study of form and function. We
show how principles of quantitative evolution in continuous phenotypic
traits can link the two techniques, allowing hypotheses about the
relative importance of different functions to be tested in a
phylogenetic and evolutionary framework. Finite element analysis is
used to derive quantitative surfaces that describe the comparative
performance of different morphologies in a morphospace derived from
GM. The combination of two or more performance surfaces describes a
quantitative adaptive landscape that can be used to predict the
direction morphological evolution would take if a combination of
functions was selected for. Predicted paths of evolution also can be
derived for hypotheses about the relative importance of multiple
functions, which can be tested against evolutionary pathways that are
documented by phylogenies or fossil sequences. Magnitudes of
evolutionary trade-offs between functions can be estimated using
maximum likelihood. We apply these methods to an earlier study of
carapace strength and hydrodynamic efficiency in emydid turtles. We
find that strength and hydrodynamic efficiency explain about 45% of
the variance in shell shape; drift and other unidentified functional
factors are necessary to explain the remaining variance. Measurement
of the proportional trade-off between shell strength and hydrodynamic
efficiency shows that throughout the Cenozoic aquatic turtles
generally sacrificed strength for streamlining and terrestrial species
favored stronger shells; this suggests that the selective regime
operating on small to mid-sized emydids has remained relatively
static.


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