Tomeia witecki gen. et sp. nov.
Estevan Eltink, Átila A. Stock Da-Rosa & Sérgio Dias-da-Silva (2016)
A capitosauroid from the Lower Triassic of South America (Sanga do Cabral Supersequence: Paraná Basin), its phylogenetic relationships and biostratigraphic implications.
Historical Biology (advance online publication)
Surviving through the end-Permian mass extinction, stereospondyls reemerged reaching a widespread distribution during the Early Triassic. A well representative lineage of this clade, Capitosauroidea, became worldwide abundant from Early to Late Triassic, in which their first undoubtful representatives were recovered from Lower Triassic deposits. Here, we describe a new capitosauroid, Tomeia witecki gen. et sp. nov., from the Sanga do Cabral Supersequence (Paraná Basin). Although relatively incomplete, the material presents a particular combination of early and late-diverging capitosauroid characters. Supporting Tomeia witecki as a new capitosauroid, our phylogenetic analysis placed the taxon as part of a clade that comprises only Early Triassic capitosauroids, specifically as the sister-taxon of the madagascarian Edingerella madagascariensis and close to Watsonisuchus spp., from Australia, South Africa and Madagascar. The status of Tomeia witecki as a new capitosauroid from western Gondwana supports a continuous record of the Stereospondyl lineage, since their first appearance during the Middle Permian in this supercontinent. Additionally, the temporal range of the Sanga do Cabral Supersequence during the Early Triassic was specifically reinforced as Olenekian, mainly based on the overall faunal content previously reported to this unit, associated with the known temporal distribution from those taxa phylogenetically closer to Tomeia witecki.
Michael O. Day, Bruce S. Rubidge, and Fernando Abdala (2016)
A new mid-Permian burnetiamorph therapsid from the Main Karoo Basin of South Africa and a phylogenetic review of Burnetiamorpha.
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 61 (4): 701-719
Discoveries of burnetiamorph therapsids in the last decade and a half have increased their known diversity but they remain a minor constituent of middle–late Permian tetrapod faunas. In the Main Karoo Basin of South Africa, from where the clade is traditionally best known, specimens have been reported from all of the Permian biozones except the Eodicynodon and Pristerognathus assemblage zones. Although the addition of new taxa has provided more evidence for burnetiamorph synapomorphies, phylogenetic hypotheses for the clade remain incongruent with their appearances in the stratigraphic column. Here we describe a new burnetiamorph specimen (BP/1/7098) from the Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone and review the phylogeny of the Burnetiamorpha through a comprehensive comparison of known material. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that BP/1/7098 is closely related to the Russian species Niuksenitia sukhonensis. Remarkably, the supposed mid-Permian burnetiids Bullacephalus and Pachydectes are not recovered as burnetiids and in most cases are not burnetiamorphs at all, instead representing an earlier-diverging clade of biarmosuchians that are characterised by their large size, dentigerous transverse process of the pterygoid and exclusion of the jugal from the lateral temporal fenestra. The evolution of pachyostosis therefore appears to have occurred independently in these genera. The resulting biarmosuchian tree is significantly more congruent with the stratigraphic appearance of its constituent taxa than in previous phylogenetic hypotheses and, consequently, does not necessarily constrain the diversification of the Burnetiamorpha to before the Capitanian.