Daniel Madzia & Marcin Machalski (2017)
Isolated pliosaurid teeth from the Albian–Cenomanian (Cretaceous) of Annopol, Poland.
Acta Geologica Polonica Vol 67, No 3 (2017) 393–403
A. Kristopher Lappin, Sean C. Wilcox, David J. Moriarty, Stephanie A. R. Stoeppler, Susan E. Evans & Marc E. H. Jones (2017)
Bite force in the horned frog (Ceratophrys cranwelli) with implications for extinct giant frogs
Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 11963 (2017)
Of the nearly 6,800 extant frog species, most have weak jaws that play only a minor role in prey capture. South American horned frogs (Ceratophrys) are a notable exception. Aggressive and able to consume vertebrates their own size, these “hopping heads” use a vice-like grip of their jaws to restrain and immobilize prey. Using a longitudinal experimental design, we quantified the ontogenetic profile of bite-force performance in post-metamorphic Ceratophrys cranwelli. Regression slopes indicate positive allometric scaling of bite force with reference to head and body size, results that concur with scaling patterns across a diversity of taxa, including fish and amniotes (lizards, tuatara, turtles, crocodylians, rodents). Our recovered scaling relationship suggests that exceptionally large individuals of a congener (C. aurita) and extinct giant frogs (Beelzebufo ampinga, Late Cretaceous of Madagascar) probably could bite with forces of 500 to 2200 N, comparable to medium to large-sized mammalian carnivores.
Tomasz Szczygielski , Dawid Surmik, Agnieszka Kapuścińska & Bruce M. Rothschild (2017)
The oldest record of aquatic amniote congenital scoliosis.
PLoS ONE 12(9): e0185338.
We report the first occurrence of congenital scoliosis in an early Permian aquatic parareptile, Stereosternum tumidum from Paraná state, Brazil. The spine malformation is caused by a congenital hemivertebra. These observations give insight into the biomechanical aspects of underwater locomotion in an axial skeleton-compromised aquatic amniote. This is the oldest record of a hemivertebra in an aquatic animal.