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[dinosaur] New frog found in Paleocene bird pellet + radiation of core landbirds + more

Ben Creisler

Some recent non-dino papers:

Calyptocephalella sabrosa sp. nov.

Paula Muzzopappa, ÂAgustÃn G. Martinelli, ÂJuan P. Garderes & Guillermo W. Rougier (2020)
Exceptional avian pellet from the Paleocene of Patagonia and description of its content: a new species of calyptocephalellid (Neobatrachia) anuran.
Papers in Palaeontology (advance online publication)
doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/spp2.1333

Data archiving statement CT scan files are archived in MorphoSource: (CT scan) M67342â121209 https://doi.org/10.17602/M2/M121209; (segmented mesh) M67342â122739 https://doi.org/10.17602/M2/M122739
This published work and the nomenclatural act it contains, have been registered in ZooBank: http://zoobank.org/References/70A5107B-32C9-40DA-ADE6-34909E10588C CT scan files are archived in MorphoSource: (CT scan) M67342â121209 https://doi.org/10.17602/m2/m121209; (segmented mesh) M67342â122739 https://doi.org/10.17602/m2/m122739

A fossil gastric pellet from the Danian âBanco Negro Inferiorâ of the Salamanca Formation at Punta Peligro Locality (Chubut, Argentina) and its 3D preserved fossil content is studied herein. The structure of the pellet and the condition of the enclosed bones suggest that it was produced by a bird of prey, although birds of any kind are as yet unknown from osteological remains in the Banco Negro ecosystem. The content of the pellet originated from a single anuran individual, representing a new species of the genus Calyptocephalella , is described herein as C. sabrosa sp. nov. The new find highlights the broad temporal, geographical and taxonomic diversity of this frog genus in Patagonia's geological past.

Free pdf:

Yonghua Wu, Yi Yan, Yuanqin Zhao, Li Gu, Songbo Wang & David H. Johnson (2020)
Genomic bases underlying the adaptive radiation of core landbirds.
bioRxiv 2020.07.29.222281
doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.29.222281

Core landbirds undergo adaptive radiation with different ecological niches, but the genomic bases that underlie their ecological diversification remain unclear. Here we used the genome-wide target enrichment sequencing of the genes related to vision, hearing, language, temperature sensation, beak shape, taste transduction, and carbohydrate, protein and fat digestion and absorption to examine the genomic bases underlying their ecological diversification. Our comparative molecular phyloecological analyses show that different core landbirds present adaptive enhancement in different aspects, and two general patterns emerge. First, all three raptorial birds (Accipitriformes, Strigiformes, and Falconiformes) show a convergent adaptive enhancement for fat digestion and absorption, while non-raptorial birds tend to exhibit a promoted capability for protein and carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Using this as a molecular marker, our results show relatively strong support for the raptorial lifestyle of the common ancestor of core landbirds, consequently suggesting a single origin of raptors, followed by two secondary losses of raptorial lifestyle within core landbirds. In addition to the dietary niche, we find at temporal niche that diurnal birds tend to exhibit an adaptive enhancement in bright-light vision, while nocturnal birds show an increased adaption in dim-light vision, in line with previous findings. Our molecular phyloecological study reveals the genome-wide adaptive differentiations underlying the ecological diversification of core landbirds.


Free pdf:

Martin PÃckert, Adrien Favre, Jan Schnitzler, Jochen Martens, YueâHua Sun, Dieter Thomas Tietze, Frank Haile, Ingo Michalak & Patrick Strutzenberger (2020)
"Into and Out of" the QinghaiâTibet Plateau and the Himalayas: Centers of origin and diversification across five clades of Eurasian montane and alpine passerine birds.
Ecology and Evolution (advance online publication)
doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6615

Free pdf:

Encompassing some of the major hotspots of biodiversity on Earth, large mountain systems have long held the attention of evolutionary biologists. The region of the QinghaiâTibet Plateau (QTP) is considered a biogeographic source for multiple colonization events into adjacent areas including the northern Palearctic. The faunal exchange between the QTP and adjacent regions could thus represent a oneâway street (âout ofâ the QTP). However, immigration into the QTP region has so far received only little attention, despite its potential to shape faunal and floral communities of the QTP. In this study, we investigated centers of origin and dispersal routes between the QTP, its forested margins and adjacent regions for five clades of alpine and montane birds of the passerine superfamily Passeroidea. We performed an ancestral area reconstruction using BioGeoBEARS and inferred a timeâcalibrated backbone phylogeny for 279 taxa of Passeroidea. The oldest endemic species of the QTP was dated to the early Miocene (ca. 20 Ma). Several additional QTP endemics evolved in the mid to late Miocene (12â7 Ma). The inferred centers of origin and diversification for some of our target clades matched the "out of Tibet hypothesis" or the "out of Himalayas hypothesis" for others they matched the "into Tibet hypothesis." Three radiations included multiple independent Pleistocene colonization events to regions as distant as the Western Palearctic and the Nearctic. We conclude that faunal exchange between the QTP and adjacent regions was bidirectional through time, and the QTP region has thus harbored both centers of diversification and centers of immigration.